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The Einsatzkommando of the Sipo (Sicherheitspolizei, Security Police) and the SD (Sicherheitsdienst, Security Service) in Luxembourg (EK) began to operate, in August 1940. Consisting of the SD, Gestapo, and Kripo (criminal police), it was headquartered in the Villa Pauly, in Luxembourg City. The EK had several external branches (Unterkommandos), in Esch-Alzette, Villa Seliegmann, and Diekirch—Vila Conter, and posts with the Border Police in Rodingen, Kleinbettingen, and Steinfort. The EK commander was also in charge of the Gestapo office in Trier, which was subordinate to the chief of the Luxembourg Civil Administration (CdZ). The staff of the EK and its branches numbered about eighty. Due to disagreements between the first commander of the Einsatzkommando, SS-Sturmbannführer Wilhelm Nölle, and the Gauleiter (Nazi Party regional leader), Gustav Simon, over the latter’s anti-Jewish policy, Simon dismissed Nölle from his post on March 8, 1941. He replaced him with SS-Obersturmführer Fritz Hartmann, who had been commander of Gestapo-Trier, and had appointed the lawyer Dr. Walter Vollmer of Sipo-Berlin as his successor. On April 9, 1943, Hartmann was dismissed from his post for having ordered the arrest of four members of Hermann Göring’s staff. In the aftermath of that incident, Vollmer took command of the Einsatzkommando, in August 1943. Continuing to command Gestapo-Trier as well, he transferred de facto command of the EK to Walter Runge, who, as an SS-Hauptsturmführer, held the highest rank there. Vollmer remained in that post, until September 1944. The duties of the EK, and, in particular, the Jewish affairs desk (originally known as IIB3; as IV4b, in 1942–1943; and as IVB4, afterward), in accordance with the reorganization of the RSHA (Reichssicherheitshauptamt, Reich Security Main Office), headed by Otto Schmalz, were to oversee the forced emigration of the Jews of Luxembourg, escort the transports as far as the Spanish border, organize transports of Jews out of Luxembourg, in accordance with RSHA directives and criteria, and carry out the transports in practice. The EK, which was largely autonomous in its activities, was subordinate only to the directives of the RSHA in Berlin, the IdS (commander of Sipo and SD), and the Police and SS Commander. In mid-1944, the EK and Gestapo-Trier became external branches of Gestapo-Koblenz.

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