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Testimony of Nirah Schnurmann, née Lotte Wald, born in Bochum, Germany, 1916, regarding her experiences and the activities of Zionist and resistance movements in the Netherlands, 1939-1945

Replies to the questionnaire, issued by the Itzhak Katzenelson Holocaust and Jewish Resistance Heritage Museum and Study Center, March 1957:

- Member of Habonim, Bochum, 1935;

- Kristallnacht and detention for one day, November 1938;

- Aliya training within the framework of Hechalutz, Flensburg, Germany, November 1937-February 1939;

- Revocation of her German citizenship; move to the Netherlands for individual aliya training with Hechalutz, February 1939;

- Aliya training in Amsterdam, work at a vegetarian restaurant, May 1940-June 1941;

- Individual aliya training in Arnheim, together with her husband, Heinz Spittel; unsuccessful attempts to hide, June 1941-December 1942;

- Capture of all Jews in Arnheim, 11 December 1942, and deportation to Westerbork;

- Detention at Westerbork; formation of an aliya training group; agricultural work outside the camp without the possibility of escape, January 1943-September 1943;

- Deportation to Auschwitz, 16 September 1943; all women sent to the experimentation block (experiments on 200 women conducted by Dr. Glauberg and Dr. Wirz); all men (amongst them Heinz Spittel) sent to Buna-Monowitz camp, where the majority died after a few weeks;

- Transfer to Birkenau on account of her refusal to participate in the experiments, summer 1944; forced labor in road construction and agriculture;

- Transfer to Bergen-Belsen, November-December 1944;

- Tranfer to Salzwedel concentration camp for forced labor in an ammunitions factory, January 1945; liberation;

- Return to the Netherlands following liberation, 28 April 1945; hospitalization due to appendicitis and sepsis;

- Her husband's death following the liberation of Bergen-Belsen;

- Aliya, autumn 1945.

Names of Jews deported to Auschwitz::
- Heinz Spittel, pp. 10-12;
- Ferry and Batia Rosenberger, p. 12;
- Ernst Erco Cossmann, p. 12;
- Max Loewinger, p. 12;
- Eddie and Friedel de Windt, p. 12;
- Ludwig Hoffman, p. 12;
- Weinstein, p. 12.

Additional Details

File: Click here
Record Group: O.33 - Testimonies, Diaries and Memoirs Collection
File Number: 5205
Location of originals: Ghetto Fighters' Museum
Item ID: 3730328

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