Following the Munich Conference and the annexation of the Sudetenland to the Reich in October 1938, Nazi anti-Jewish laws were implemented throughout the region. The Jewish population was persecuted and dispossessed of its property (Aryanized). These measures led many Jews to flee, mostly to neighboring Czechoslovakia.
In November 1942, the RSHA initiated transports of the remaining Jews in the Sudetenland region. Gestapo headquarters in Liberec (Reichenberg), headed first by Rudolf Schröder and later by Bernhard Baatz, oversaw the deportations.
In January 1945, Nazi Germany faced military defeat. Allied forces liberated France, Belgium and most of the Netherlands. In Eastern Europe, the Red Army had advanced in to the Baltic States and Eastern Poland. On January 10, the Soviet forces launched a large scale offensive in East Prussia and Poland (Operation Vistula – Oder). Many German cities were heavily bombed and destroyed during the Allied aerial attack. The German transportation system was thrown into chaos. However, the Gestapo continued to issue deportation announcements all across Germany.
The tenth transport left Usti nad Labem to the Theresienstadt Ghetto on 23 February 1945. It consisted of 20 deportees; another transport from the same area, marked XIX/11, left the same day.
Very little is known about this transport. It is assumed that the deportees were driven in buses or trucks from the area of Usti nad Labem to Theresienstadt. Prior to their deportation, the deportees were searched and all valuable items in their possession were confiscated. In the Theresienstadt Ghetto listings the transport was recorded as XIX/10 where the Roman numeral XIX refers to the area of Usti nad Labem.
The Theresienstadt ghetto was liberated three months later, on 8 May 1945. According to historian Rudolf Wlaschek, all 20 deportees managed to survive the harsh conditions in the ghetto.