Following the Munich Conference and the annexation of the Sudetenland to the Reich in October 1938, Nazi anti-Jewish laws were implemented throughout the region. The Jewish population was persecuted and dispossessed of its property (Aryanized). These measures led many Jews to flee, mostly to neighboring Czechoslovakia.
In November 1942, the RSHA initiated transports of the remaining Jews in the Sudetenland region. Gestapo headquarters in Liberec (Reichenberg), headed first by Rudolf Schröder and later by Bernhard Baatz, oversaw the deportations.
In January 1945, Nazi Germany faced military defeat. Allied forces liberated France, Belgium and most of the Netherlands. In Eastern Europe, the Red Army had advanced in to the Baltic States and Eastern Poland. On January 10, the Soviet forces launched a large scale offensive in East Prussia and Poland (Operation Vistula – Oder). Many German cities were heavily bombed and destroyed during the Allied aerial attack. The German transportation system was thrown into chaos. However, the Gestapo continued to issue deportation announcements all across Germany.
The fifteenth transport left the Usti nad Labem area to the Theresienstadt Ghetto on 22 February 1945. It consisted of 21 deportees, including two families with children as young as 15.
Very little is known about this transport. According to the records of the Jewish adminstration in Theresienstadt, the transport departed from the city of Teplice-Sanov (Teplitz-Schönau). From there, it is assumed that the deportees were driven in buses or trucks to Theresienstadt. Prior to their deportation, the deportees were searched and all valuable items in their possession were confiscated. In the Theresienstadt Ghetto listings the transport was recorded as XIX/9 where the Roman numeral XIX refers to the area of Usti nad Labem.
The Theresienstadt ghetto was liberated three months later, on 8 May 1945. According to historian Rudolf Wlaschek, all 21 deportees managed to survive the harsh conditions in the ghetto.